Model Characteristics

Id 8
Last update 2011-05-11
Name Eucalypt
Year 2002
Author L. Saint-André
Email Contact
Organisation CIRAD; ECOsa
Country France
Category Growth
Model type Empirical growth & Yield models
Sub-type Distance independent tree model
Level Stand/plot
Time step Any
Time scale Long term
Stochasticity Deterministic
Range of applicabiilty (region, ...) République du Congo
(Massif de Pointe-Noire)
Stand composition Monospecific
Forest structure Even
Species Eucalyptus spp.
Sylvicultural system
Tree range
Stand range
State variables - Growth Aboveground biomass; Basal area; Branches biomass; Dominant diameter; Dominant height; Leaves biomass; Merchantable volume; Number of trees per hectare; Root biomass; Stem bark biomass; Stem wood biomass; Total biomass; Total volume
State variables - Initialization
State variables - Prediction
State variables - Stochastic for
Distribution diameter variables - growth
Distribution diameter variables - initialization
Distribution diameter variables - prediction
Distribution diameter variables - stochasticity for
Tree variables - growth Aboveground biomass; Bark profile; Branches biomass; Branching description; Diameter at Breast Height; Leaves biomass; Probability of a tree to die; Root biomass; Stem bark biomass; Stem height; Stem wood biomass; Stump volume over bark; Taper functions; Total biomass; Tree Height; Tree identification; Tree life status (Alive/dead); Volume over bark with stump; Volume over bark without stump; Volume under bark with stump; Volume under bark without stump
Tree variables - Initialisation
Tree variables - prediction
Tree variables - stochasticity for
Growth processes Decomposition; Litter fall; Net primary production
Regeneration processes at stand level
Regeneration processes at sapling level
Submodule : Sylvicultural practicies Biomass extraction; Clear cutting; Debarking; Fertilization; Fertilization at planting; Genetics effects; Initial density (seedling, plantation)
Submodel : Climate parameters Fertility rating; Site index
Input state variables Stand : area; Stand : Basal area; Stand : Dominant height; Stand : Number of trees per hectare; Stand : Site index; Stand: Age; Stand: dominant diameter; Stand: mean diameter; Stand: species; Tree : Diameter at Breast Height; Tree : Dominance level; Tree : Height
Human inputs Debarking scenario; Fertilization (Yes/ No); Rotation length
Climate inputs Site index
Output state variable Distribution dimension; Maps: Stand/Tree visualization; Nitrogen cycle; Site : nutrient contents; Stand : Aboveground biomass; Stand : area; Stand : basal area; Stand : branches biomass; Stand : carbon stock; Stand : dominant diameter; Stand : dominant height; Stand : harvest timber volume; Stand : leaf biomass; Stand : mean diameter; Stand : medium height; Stand : merchantable volumes over bark; Stand : merchantable volumes under bark; Stand : Net primary productivity (NPP); Stand : Number of trees per hectare; Stand : nutrients; Stand : Root biomass; Stand : Site index; Stand : soil carbon fluxes parameters; Stand : species; Stand : Stem bark biomass; Stand : Stem wood biomass; Stand : Total biomass; Stand: Age; Stand: mean annual volume increment (MAI); Stand: quadratic mean diameter; Stand: total volume; Tree : aboveground biomass; Tree : branches biomass; Tree : branching description; Tree : Diameter at Breast Height; Tree : Height; Tree : identification; Tree : Leaf biomass; Tree : life status (Alive/dead); Tree : Root biomass; Tree : Stem bark biomass; Tree : Stem height; Tree : Stem wood biomass; Tree : Stump volume over bark; Tree : Total biomass; Tree : Volume over bark with stump; Tree : Volume over bark without stump; Tree : Volume under bark with stump; Tree : Volume under bark without stump; Tree: Basal area; Tree: nutrients (N,P,K,Ca,Mg)
Quantity products Wood for fencing
Quality pulp Wood density
Quality construction Wood density
Quality cork
Simulator name Capsis
Stand Simulator version
Stand Simulator hardware
Stand Simulator memory
Stand Simulator OS Windows / Mac
Stand Simulator language Java
Stand Simulator characteristics Batch-mode use; Interactive changing of equations; Interactive use
Stand Simulator indicators Age structure and diameter distribution (Module 2); Forest ressources (Lead)
Stand Simulator visualization Virtual walk inside the stand/plot
Landscape Simulator name
Landscape Simulator version
Landscape Simulator hardware
Landscape Simulator memory
Landscape Simulator OS
Landscape Simulator language
Landscape Simulator characteristics
Landscape Simulator indicators
Landscape Simulator visualization
Reference Methodologies used in evaluation; Model developement methodology; Model equations; Model modules/components

Genet A., Wernsdörfer H., Jonard M., Pretzsch H., Rauch M., Ponette Q., Nys C., Legout A., Ranger J., Vallet P., Saint-André L., 2011 Ontogeny partly explains the apparent heterogeneity of published biomass equations for Fagus sylvatica in central Europe. Forest Ecology and Management 261( 7): 1188-1202.

Gomat HY., Deleporte  Ph., Moukini R., Mialounguila G., Ognouabi N., Saya R.A., Vigneron Ph. Saint-Andre, L., 2011. What factors influence the stem taper of Eucalyptus: growth, environment, or genetics? Annals of Forest Science. In Press

Laclau J-P., Levillain J., Deleporte Ph., NzilaJDD., Bouillet J-P., Saint André L., Versini A.,  Mareschal L., Nouvellon Y., Thongo M’Bou A., Ranger J. 2010. Organic residue mass at planting is an excellent predictor of tree growth in Eucalyptus plantations established on a sandy tropical soil. Forest Ecology and Management 260(12):2148–2159.

  Almeida J.C.R., Laclau J-P., Gonçalves J.L.M., Ranger J., Saint-André L., 2010. A positive growth response to NaCl applications in Eucalyptus plantations established on K-deficient soils. Forest Ecology and Management, 259(9):1786-1795  

 Thongo M’Bou A., Saint-André L., de Grancourt A., Nouvellon Y., Jourdan C., Mialoundama F., Epron D., 2010 Growth and maintenance respiration of roots of clonal eucalyptus cuttings: scaling to stand-level. Plant and soil 332:41–53. DOI 10.1007/s11104-009-0272-y

Nouvellon Y., Laclau J.P., Epron D., Kinana A., Mabiala A., Roupsard  O., Bonnefond J.M., Le Maire G., Marsden C., Bontemps J-D., Saint-Andre L. 2010. Within-stand and seasonal variation of specific leaf area in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation in the Republic of Congo. Forest Ecology and Management. 259(9): 1796-1807. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.05.023 

 Laclau J-P., Ranger J., Gonçalves JLM, Maquère V., Krushe A.V., Thongo M’Bou A., Nouvellon Y., Saint-André L., Bouillet J-P., Piccolo MC, Deleporte Ph., 2010. Biogeochemical cycles of nutrients in tropical Eucalyptus plantations Main features shown by intensive monitoring in Congo and Brazil, Forest Ecology and Management, 259(9): 1771-1785. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.06.010

Epron D., Marsden C., Thongo M’Bou A., Saint-André L., d’Annunzio R., Nouvellon Y. 2009 Soil carbon dynamics following afforestation of a tropical savannah with Eucalyptus in Congo. Plant and Soil, 323: 309-322. DOI 10.1007/s11104-009-9939-7.

Laclau JP., Almeida JCR, Gonçalves JLM, Saint-André L., Ventura M., Ranger J., Moreira RM., Nouvellon Y. 2009. Influence of nitrogen and potassium fertilizations on leaf lifespan and allocation of above-ground growth in Eucalyptus plantations. Tree Physiology, 29 :111-124 doi:10.1093/treephys/tpn010

Maquère V., Laclau J.P., Bernoux M., Saint-André L., Gonçalves J.L.M., Cerri C.,Piccolo M., Ranger J. 2008. Influence of land use (cerrado, pastures vs eucalyptus silviculture) on soil organic matter stocks (C and N) in Brazil. European Journal of Soil Science, 59(5):863-877. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2008.01059.x

Chaubert F., Mortier F., Saint-André L. 2008. Multivariate dynamic model for ordinal outcomes. Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 99:1717-1732. doi:10.1016/j.jmva.2008.01.011

 Thongo M’Bou A., Jourdan C., Deleporte Ph., Nouvellon Y., Saint-André L., Bouillet J-P., Mialoundama F., Mabial A., Epron D. 2008 Root elongation in tropical Eucalyptus plantations: effect of soil water contents. Annals of Forest Science 65 (2008) 609. DOI:10.1051/forest:2008038

  Laclau J.-P., Bouillet J.-P., Gonçalves J.L.M., Silva E.V., Jourdan C.  Cunha M.C.S., Moreira M.R., Saint-André L., Gonçalves M.R., Maquère V., Nouvellon Y., Ranger J. 2008 Mixed-species plantations of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis in Brazil. 1. Growth dynamics and net primary production. Forest Ecology and Management, 255:3905-3917. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2007.10.049

Adu Bredu S., Tape Bi A., Bouillet JP., Kouame Me M., Yamoah Kyei S., Saint-Andre L. 2008. An explicit stem profile model for forked and un-forked teak trees (Tectona grandis) in West Africa. Forest Ecology and Management 255:2189-2203.

 Nouvellon Y., Epron D., Kinana A., Hamel O., Mabiala A., D’annunzio R., Deleporte Ph.,  Saint-André L., Marsden C., Roupsard O., Bouillet J-P., Laclau J-P., 2008. Soil CO2 effluxes, soil carbon balance, and early tree growth following savannah afforestation in Congo: comparison of two site preparation treatments. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 1926-1936.

D’Annunzio R.,  Conche S., Landais D., Saint-André L., Joffre R., Barthes B. 2008 Pairwise comparison of soil organic particle-size distributions in native savannas and Eucalyptus plantations in Congo. Forest Ecology and Management 255:1050-1056.

D’Annunzio R.,  Zeller B., Nicolas M., Dhôte J-F., Saint-André L., 2008. Decomposition of European Beech (Fagus Sylvatica) litter: combining quality theory and 15N-labelling experiments. Soil Biology and Biogeochemistry 40:322-333.

Marsden C., Nouvellon Y., Thongo M’Bou A., Saint-André L., Jourdan C., Kinana A., Epron D. 2008. Two independent estimations of stand level root respiration on clonal Eucalyptus stands in Congo: up scaling of direct measurements on roots versus the trenched-plot technique. New Phytologist, 177 (3), 676-687. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02300.x

  Leroy C., Saint-André L., Auclair D., 2007. Practical methods for non-destructive measurement of tree leaf area. Agroforestry systems. 71:99–108. DOI. 10.1007/s10457-007-9077-2.

 Epron D., Nouvellon Y., Deleporte Ph., Ifo S., Kazotti G., Thongo M’bou A., Mouvondy W., Saint-Andre L., Roupsard O., Jourdan C., Hamel O., 2006. Soil carbon balance in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation in Congo: effects of logging on carbon inputs and soil CO2 efflux. Global Change and Biology 12:1021-1031.

Sicard C., Saint-André L., Gelhaye D., Ranger J., 2006. Effect of initial fertilisation on biomass, nutrient content and nutrient-use efficiency of even-aged Norway spruce and Douglas-fir stands planted in the same ecological conditions. Trees Structure and Function. 20:229-246.

Laclau J-P., Ranger J., Deleporte Ph., Nouvellon Y., Saint-André L., Marle S., Bouillet J-P. 2005. Nutrient cycling in a clonal stand of Eucalyptus and an adjacent savanna ecosystem in Congo. 3. Input-output budgets and consequences for the sustainability of the plantations. Forest Ecology and Management 210:375-391.

Saint-André L., Thongo M’Bou A., Mabiala A., Mouvondy W., Jourdan C., Roupsard O., Deleporte Ph., Hamel O., Nouvellon Y. 2005. Age-Related equations for above- and below-ground biomass of a Eucalyptus hybrid in Congo. Forest Ecology and Management 205:199-214.

Epron D., Nouvellon Y., Roupsard O., Mouvondy W., Mabiala A., Saint-André L., Joffre R., Jourdan C., Bonnefond J-M., Berbigier P., Hamel O., 2004. Spatial and temporal variation of soil respiration in a Eucalyptus plantation in Congo. Forest Ecology and Management 202:149-160.

Cornillon PA., Saint-André L., Bouvet J-M., Vigneron Ph., 2003, Using B-Splines for growth curves classification : applications to Eucalypt clones. Forest Ecology and Management 176(3):75-85.

Bouillet J-P., Laclau J-P., Arnaud M., Thongo M’Bou, A., Saint-André L., Jourdan C., 2002, Changes with age in the spatial distribution of roots of an Eucalyptus clone in  Congo. Impact on water and nutrient uptake ability. Forest Ecology and Management 171(1):43-57.

Saint-André L., Laclau J-P., Deleporte Ph., Ranger J., Gouma R., Saya A.,  Joffre R., 2002, A generic model for the dynamics of nutrients concentration within the stem wood over the whole stand rotation. Annals of Botany  90(1):65-76.

Saint-André L., Vallet P., Pignard G., Dupouey J.L., Colin A., Loustau D., Le Bas C., Meredieu C., Caraglio Y., Porté A., Hamza N., Cazin A., Nouvellon Y., Dhôte J.F. 2010. Estimating carbon stocks in forest stands: 1. Methodological developments. In : Loustau Denis (ed.). Forests, carbon cycle and climate change. Versailles : Ed. Quae, p. 79-100.

Saint-André L., Laclau J-P., Deleporte Ph., Gava J.L., Gonçalves J. L. M., Mendham D., Nzila J. D., Smith C., du Toit B., Xu D.P., Sankaran K.V., Marien J.N., Nouvellon Y., Bouillet J-P., Ranger J. 2008. Slash and Litter management effects on eucalyptus productivity : a synthesis using a growth and yield modelling approach. /In, Nambiar, E.K.S. (Editor) Site Management and Productivity in Tropical Plantation Forests. Proceedings of Workshops in Piracicaba (Brazil) 22-26 November 2004 and Bogor (Indonesia) 6-9 November 2006/. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), 2008.CIFOR 2008. p 173-189.

Laclau J.-P., Ranger J., Deleporte P., Safou-Matondo R.,  Nouvellon Y., Saint-André L., Bouillet J.-P. 2007. Modifications of the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients in a Congolese savanna after afforestation with eucalypts. In: Forest Ecology Research Horizons, Editor: Nole C. Verne, pp: 1-38 © 2007 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. ISBN1- 1-60021-490-8

Saint-André L., Ranger J., Laclau J-P., Bouillet J-P. 2003. Modelling nutrient cycling and integrating nutrient cycling into growth models. In: Site management and productivity in tropical plantation forests: Proceedings of workshops in Congo July 2001 and China February 2003. Edited by E.K.E. Nambiar, J. Ranger, A. Tiarks and T. Toma. CIFOR 2004. p171-184.

 De Coligny F., Ancelin P., Cornu G., Courbaud B., Dreyfus P., Goreaud F., Gourlet-Fleury S., Meredieu C., Saint-André L. 2003. CAPSIS: Computer-aided profection for strategies in Silviculture: Advantages of a shared forest-modelling platform. In: Amaro A., Reed D., Soares P. editors, CAB International  p 319-323.

Fallot A, Saint-Andre L, Le Maire G, et al. 2009. Biomass sustainability, availability and productivity. In 4th ULCOS Seminar, OCT 01-03, 2008 Essen, GERMANY- REVUE DE METALLURGIE-CAHIERS d’INFORMATIONS TECHNIQUES   Sp. Iss. SI  106(10) : 410-418.

C. Meredieu, Ph. Dreyfus , V. Cucchi, L. Saint-André, S. Perret, C. Deleuze, J.F. Dhôte, F. deColigny 2009, La plateforme de simulation Capsis : exemples d’utilisation appliqués à la gestion. Forêt-Entreprise 186(5):32-36.

Context CAQ group