Model Characteristics

Id 9
Last update 2002-11-25
Name Mountain
Year 2002
Author B. Courbaud
Email Contact
Organisation CEMAGREF
Country France
Category Growth
Model type Empirical growth & Yield models
Sub-type Distance dependent tree model
Level Tree
Time step
Time scale
Range of applicabiilty (region, ...) Mountain has been validated for Norway spruce uneven-aged stands of the French Alps.
Stand composition
Forest structure
Species Picea abies
Sylvicultural system
Tree range
Stand range
State variables - Growth
State variables - Initialization
State variables - Prediction
State variables - Stochastic for
Distribution diameter variables - growth
Distribution diameter variables - initialization
Distribution diameter variables - prediction
Distribution diameter variables - stochasticity for
Tree variables - growth
Tree variables - Initialisation
Tree variables - prediction
Tree variables - stochasticity for
Growth processes
Regeneration processes at stand level
Regeneration processes at sapling level
Submodule : Sylvicultural practicies Silviculture: initial density and thinnings
Submodel : Climate parameters Growth; Mortality; Regeneration
Input state variables Coordinates; Crown base height and crown base radius (in option); Diameter; Height
Human inputs
Climate inputs
Output state variable Individual light interception; Light map on the ground; Stand-level characteristics (basal area, density ...); Tree-level characteristics (diameter, height, crown dimensions)
Quantity products
Quality pulp
Quality construction
Quality cork
Simulator name Capsis
Stand Simulator version
Stand Simulator hardware
Stand Simulator memory
Stand Simulator OS
Stand Simulator language
Stand Simulator characteristics
Stand Simulator indicators
Stand Simulator visualization
Landscape Simulator name
Landscape Simulator version
Landscape Simulator hardware
Landscape Simulator memory
Landscape Simulator OS
Landscape Simulator language
Landscape Simulator characteristics
Landscape Simulator indicators
Landscape Simulator visualization
Bibliography OBJECTIVES
Mountain is a model of forest dynamics designed to the study of stand structure / stand dynamics / silviculture interactions. It can be used to compare thinning strategies and to understand how demographic processes at the tree level (regeneration, growth, death) generate patterns at the stand level. As a spatial individual tree model, it is especially devoted to study spatial structure dynamics.
Mountain is a spatial individual tree model (Distance Dependent Tree Model). Trees are characterized by their position (X,Y,Z), height, diameter at breast height, crown base height and crown base radius. Plot is rectangular, with mean slope and aspect. It is divided in square cells (1 to 5 m wide) characterised by the presence of regeneration. Light interception is calculated for every tree and every cell taking into account stand structure, slope and aspect. Growth, death and competition are modelled at the tree level for every individuals higher than 1.30 m. Regeneration is modelled at the ground cell level. Tree height and diameter increments are calculated as the product of a potential increment by a reducer depending on the ratio between light intercepted by the tree and potential light intercepted by a tree of the same size in free growth. Tree death is stochastic and depends on light ratio. Seedling emergence, growth and death depend on light on cell surface.
Courbaud B., Goreaud F., Dreyfus P., Bonnet F.-R., 2001.
Evaluating thinning strategies using a Tree Distance-Dependent Growth Model : Some examples based on the CAPSIS software "Uneven-Aged Spruce Forests" module. Forest Ecology and Management 145, 15-28.
Courbaud B., de Coligny F., Cordonnier T., 2002. Evaluating qualitatively and quantitatively a light transmission model in spatially heterogeneous Norway spruce (Picea abies, L. Karst) mountain forests. Submitted to Forest and Agricultural Meteorology.

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